Texas is the second largest state in the United States by both area and population. Geographically located in the South Central region of the country, Texas shares borders with the U.S. states of Louisiana to the east, Arkansas to the northeast, Oklahoma to the north, New Mexico to the west, and the Mexican states of Chihuahua, Coahuila, Nuevo León, and Tamaulipas to the southwest, while the Gulf of Mexico is to the southeast.

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Census Data

Population estimates, July 1, 2016, (V2016)27,862,596
Population estimates base, April 1, 2010, (V2016)25,146,100
Population, percent change - April 1, 2010 (estimates base) to July 1, 2016, (V2016)10.80
Population, Census, April 1, 201025,145,561
Age and Sex
Persons under 5 years, percent, April 1, 20107.70
Persons under 18 years, percent, April 1, 201027.30
Persons 65 years and over, percent, April 1, 201010.30
Female persons, percent, April 1, 201050.40
Race and Hispanic Origin
White alone, percent, April 1, 201070.40
Black or African American alone, percent, April 1, 201011.80
American Indian and Alaska Native alone, percent, April 1, 20100.70
Asian alone, percent, April 1, 20103.80
Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander alone, percent, April 1, 20100.10
Two or More Races, percent, April 1, 20102.70
Hispanic or Latino, percent, April 1, 2010 (b)37.60
White alone, not Hispanic or Latino, percent, April 1, 201045.30
Population Characteristics
Veterans, 2011-20151,539,655
Foreign born persons, percent, 2011-201516.60
Housing units, April 1, 20109,977,436
Owner-occupied housing unit rate, 2011-201562.20
Median value of owner-occupied housing units, 2011-2015136,000
Median selected monthly owner costs -with a mortgage, 2011-20151,432
Median selected monthly owner costs -without a mortgage, 2011-2015460
Median gross rent, 2011-2015882
Families and Living Arrangements
Households, 2011-20159,149,196
Persons per household, 2011-2015284.00
Living in same house 1 year ago, percent of persons age 1 year+, 2011-201583.30
Language other than English spoken at home, percent of persons age 5 years+, 2011-201535.00
High school graduate or higher, percent of persons age 25 years+, 2011-201581.90
Bachelor's degree or higher, percent of persons age 25 years+, 2011-201527.60
With a disability, under age 65 years, percent, 2011-20158.10
Persons without health insurance, under age 65 years, percent19.10
In civilian labor force, total, percent of population age 16 years+, 2011-201564.30
In civilian labor force, female, percent of population age 16 years+, 2011-201557.70
Total accommodation and food services sales, 2012 ($1,000) (c)54,480,811
Total health care and social assistance receipts/revenue, 2012 ($1,000) (c)145,035,130
Total manufacturers shipments, 2012 ($1,000) (c)702,603,073
Total merchant wholesaler sales, 2012 ($1,000) (c)691,242,607
Total retail sales, 2012 ($1,000) (c)356,116,376
Total retail sales per capita, 2012 (c)13,666
Mean travel time to work (minutes), workers age 16 years+, 2011-201526
Income and Poverty
Median household income (in 2015 dollars), 2011-201553,207
Per capita income in past 12 months (in 2015 dollars), 2011-201526,999
Persons in poverty, percent15.90
All firms, 20122,356,748
Men-owned firms, 20121,251,696
Women-owned firms, 2012866,678
Minority-owned firms, 20121,070,392
Nonminority-owned firms, 20121,070,392
Veteran-owned firms, 2012213,590
Nonveteran-owned firms, 20122,057,218
Population per square mile, 201096
Land area in square miles, 2010261,232